Lithuania, like the most of the states, widely uses nuclear and radioactive material n civil applications – power, industry, health service use these materials benefiting from their unique physical features. However, if nuclear and radioactive materials are used against their initial purposes, breaching the rules of handling and especially, when these materials are used by the unauthorised persons and entities, these materials become dangerous for the human being’s health and life, as well as for the environment and society.
Nuclear security – is a set of legislative, administrative and technical measures implemented by the state’s competent authorities directed to prevent and / or intercept any unauthorised and intentional malevolent activities using nuclear and other radioactive materials as well as directed against lawful applications of these materials, including storage, transport and infrastructure.
International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) publication NSS 20 “Essential elements of the nuclear security” suggests the following definition for the nuclear security: “Nuclear security focuses on prevention of, detection of and response to criminal or intentional unauthorised acts involving or directed to nuclear and other radioactive materials, associated facilities and associated activities.
Another set of measures designed to protect people and the environment from the harmful affect of radiation is NUCLEAR SAFETY. Nuclear safety aims to manage and control safe nuclear and other radioactive material for lawful applications (power, industry, health), storage and transport by authorised entities.
Both, nuclear safety and security have the same goal – to protect people and environment and compliment to each other.
Differently from the safety, nuclear security is focusing on the intentional, malevolent and dangerous activities of unauthorised persons (groups) perusing harmful, undesirable consequences. Nuclear security measures consist of:
Nuclear security measures are aiming to:
- secure „legal” and facilities materials that are used, stored, transported by „legal“ actors (authorised users) from removal and sabotage;
- detect, interdict and investigate any activities (application, smuggling, proliferation) involving „illegal “, unaccounted materials. Such materials are called „materials out of the regulatory control “.
Nuclear security is a part of the overall national security regime. Responsibilities for different areas of nuclear security and consequently, specific functions are assigned to the multiple agencies. These are, along with SNPSD and RPC, law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Lithuania. The Police, State Border Guard Service, Dignitary Security Service, Customs and some others are sharing responsibilities for prevention of, detection and response to any nuclear security incident.
In order to effectively implement their nuclear security functions, assigned institutions consistently build and enhance their capabilities – develop procedures and plans, introduce technical equipment. train personnel and participate in the exercises.
The ultimate goal of the Nuclear Security Centre of Excellence – is to support responsible institutions building and developing their personnel nuclear security competences and facilitate interagency cooperation and coordination.