All authorities and private entities – owners of the nuclear and other radioactive materials should ensure safety and security of those materials. But when the nuclear incident related to attempts to steal, trafficking, sabotage, etc. occurred, the essential is to react effectively and promptly seeking not to allow the incident happen or to reduce its negative consequences.
However, the response forces would never be activated if the institution responsible failed to detect and to assess the event.
The nuclear security detection is the intelligence or open-source information about any planned, ongoing or already committed nuclear security event or special technical equipment readings showing the presence of increased radiation level at the places where it normally should not be.
Detection measures and specialized equipment and systems are used:
- to protect facilities where nuclear and other radioactive materials are stored and used;
- At strategic locations, including state border crossing points and during major public events.
All the technical detection equipment and systems, as well as legislative and administrative measures implemented by the number of responsible institutions, constitute the national nuclear security infrastructure.
In Lithuania, the competent authorities involved in the nuclear security detection activities are the Police, State Border Guard Service, Dignitary Security Service, Customs and some others. Additionally, the private entities that possess nuclear and other radioactive materials are responsible for the implementation of certain detection measures.
Since the key element of nuclear security detection is technical equipment, the effectiveness of detection activities depends on robust equipment sustainability program (maintenance, repair and replacement).